The race for the creation of long-lasting batteries at a global level is not shifting towards nanotechnology by using minuscule elements as a breakthrough. Improvements in the performance of batteries are crucial for the development success of various technologies ranging from solar and wind energy to the formation of electric cars. Batteries need to be more efficient as they are expected to hold more energy to stay long-lasting, safer and cheaper than previous technologies. 

In this regard, nanostructured engineering is emerging as an efficient approach that can enhance electrochemical performance because of particular chemical and physical properties, including small size, desirable composition, and availability of porous structure, quantum and surface effect. The application of nanotechnology is vast in various fields, which is more evident in energy storage. Nanoscale designs and techniques for organic materials not only increase electrochemical activity but also reduce diffusion paths such as porous nanomaterials. Nanomaterials also interact efficiently with conductive species, ultimately improving electrode conductivity.

The utilisation of nanotechnology in battery manufacturing comes with various benefits. Nanotechnology increases battery’s available power while reducing the time for its recharge. Nanoparticles are coated on the surface of electrodes to increase the battery life. This also increases the surface area, allowing increased current flow to pass between the electrodes and chemicals of the battery. This technology can be utilized as an alternative in improved hybrid vehicle while enhancing its efficiency. In hybrid vehicles, the weight of batteries can be reduced while efficiently generating the appropriate power required in batteries. Extending the shelf life of a battery by using nanomaterials for the separation of liquids from solid electrodes is also one of the benefits that come with the utilization of nanotechnology in batteries. This separation eliminates the low-level discharge in conventional batteries therefore increasing and extending the batteries' shelf life.

Nano chains are made up of nanoparticles of the same element, which are used for gathering and formation of a chain-like structure. Antimony, a well-known metalloid used for the improvement of lithium-ion charge capacity in batteries, is commonly used for the creation of a net-like nano chain structure. Lithium ions and electrons move faster because of the chain-like structure, which reduces the charging time while increasing the capacity due to permitted expansion during charging. This improvement in conventional and standard lithium-ion battery electrodes is added by using graphite electrodes.

Because of its increased theoretical capacity, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 is another form of iron oxide that has been employed as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Silicon is considered as an alternative and a possible solution to currently used graphite anode because of its high energy density and its extraordinarily high theoretical capacity of 4000 mAh g-1. In comparison to silicon, graphite anodes have a theoretical capacity of less than 400 mAh g-1 in the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, silicon anodes large volumetric capacity, which is above 8000 mAh cm-3, makes it an excellent element for its application requiring high energy density, for example, utilisation of LIBs in electric cars.

Various approaches are now being studied, which include covering the electrode surface with nanoparticles, nanowires, or other nanostructures that can efficiently boost the power of the battery through nanotechnology. While the battery is being charged, lithium ions are stored in the anode; increasing the number of stored ions will directly increase the electrical power stored in the battery. Various lithium-ion battery researchers and organisations are constantly employing nanomaterials producing the anodes having a higher density of sides for lithium-ion attachment. This method can enhance the surface area of electrodes allowing the possibility of increased lithium-ion storage. Changing these items alters the electrochemical process while improving battery power output for any given weight. By considerably decreasing the battery weight or expanding the range of hybrid or electric cars, these strategies can yield better output. 

The diffusion speed and charge transfer speed in Lithium-ion diffusion are considered to be major parameters that influence the reaction kinetics in organic cathodes. However, because the diffusion speed of lithium ions is frequently slower than the charge transfer speed, the different speed of Li-ion is the most important component in the electrochemical reaction kinetics of organic cathodes. Nanostructures may significantly reduce the diffusion route of Li-ion, and Li-ion can conduct rapidly in-plane, resulting in widespread use on organic cathodes due to their unique surface features. Because of typical shape, numerous holes and increased specific surface area, typical 2D organic MOFs are promising for cathodes. 3D organic nanomaterials, like other low-dimensional organic nanomaterials, have a large specific surface area and an open electrical transmission channel. Furthermore, in comparison to other dimensions, these 3D organic nanomaterials mainly create a porous structure that enhances active sites and ions transfer, as well as releasing a certain amount of volume expansion for the maintenance of the structure while charging and discharging. As a result, the use of 3D organic electrodes is increasing. 3D Nano-sized organic anodes made of polymeric materials, 3D molecular composite-based organic anodes, and organic anodes with the 3D conductive framework including carbon fibre and carbon paper.

Pure lithium metal is a popular material to be used in batteries. Dendrites grow on the surface of the anode, creating a branch-like structure having the capacity to puncture and harm the battery because of its high reactivity. The use of carbon nanotube film to wrap the lithium metal foil is evident to counteract this procedure. The coating produces dendrite formation by preventing Li-ions from latching onto lithium metal anode. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs), along with one-day organic nanowires and other fibres, are active materials for organic anodes and cathodes.

Nanotechnology, despite its small size, is capable of making a huge impact in the development and manufacture of batteries. Patterns and gaps in the performance of batteries by using high-quality battery test equipment and identification of areas that are hindering the performance of the battery can be improved by nanotechnology. Nanoengineering is a prevalent technique for dealing with volume and growth while improving the kinetics of electrochemical processes.