is an allotrope of carbon where its carbon atoms are linked with each other
with the help of single and double bonds. Due to these bones, a partially
closed case-like structure is formed, which is like fused rings containing
several atoms. Fullerene can be called a series of hollow carbon molecules
which formulate a closed cage. Fullerene contains 28 bonds and 12
pentagonal rings, forming the basis of icosahedral symmetry, which is like a
close cage structure. In its natural form, Fullerene is highly symmetrical,
having a similar structure as that of graphite. It is made up of sheets
connected with the hexagonal sheets or the cage structures. However, sometimes
Fullerene contains some pentagonal and has taken heptagonal rings; however,
these structures do not form a sheet to become planar. Because of this
structure, they are often known as Buckyballs and buck tubes which depend on
their structure and shape. However, commonly an infinite number of Fullerene
exists. Fullerene can exist in various forms, for example, C60,
C70, C80, and C90. The existence of these
forms depends on the number of carbon atoms existing in a particular molecule.
Apart from these, the common structure of Fullerene is primarily dependent on
pentagonal and hexagonal rings, which are formed together to form a shape like
icosahedron. The behavior and structure of Fullerene depend on the temperature.
With an increase in temperature, Fullerene is converted into C70.
The structure of Fullerene depends on the available pressure as the pressure
can change its structure in different forms. Fullerene is basically stable but
has some reactive capability as it cannot stay unreactive. It is soluble in
various organic solvents, including toluene, chlorobenzene, and
1,2,3-trichloropropane. Buckyballs and carbon additives act as a building block
for a variety of derivatives and the huge structures of Fullerene. Fullerene is
widely used in various fields, including the medical field, where it has a
light-activated antimicrobial agent. It is also widely used in drug delivery systems.
It acts as a catalyst and is widely used as a lubricant. Because of its
conductivity, it is also used as a conductor. However, some types of Fullerenes
can also be used as the absorbent for different gases. It is also used in the
manufacturing and production of cosmetics. C60-based films are widely used for
photovoltaic applications. Fullerene is also used for the manufacturing and
construction of other carbon nanotubes that are based on fibers and fabrics.