There are three major physical properties of nanoparticles, and they all are interrelated. Firstly they are highly mobile in the free state. Secondly, they have enormous specific surface areas, giving them a higher loading capacity (a standard teaspoon, or about 6 ml, of 10-nm-diameter silica nanospheres, has more surface area than a dozen doubles-sized tennis courts). Thirdly, they may exhibit what are known as quantum effects. Thus, nanoparticles have a vast range of compositions, depending on the use or the product.
Due to their submicroscopic size, nanoparticles have unique material characteristics, and manufactured nanoparticles may find practical applications in a variety of areas, including medicine, engineering, catalysis, and environmental remediation. Generally, nanoparticle-based technologies revolve around opportunities to improve efficiency, sustainability, and the speed of already-existing processes.